Ecology and Climate Variation

Climate change occurs when changes in Earth’s climate system result in new weather patterns that remain in place for an extended period. This length of time can be as short as a few decades to if millions of years. The climate system comprises five interacting parts, the atmosphere (air), Hydrosphere (water), cryosphere (ice and permafrost), biosphere (living things), and lithosphere (earth's crust and upper mantle). The climate system receives nearly all its energy from the sun, with a relatively tiny amount from earth's interior. The climate system also gives off energy to outer space. The balance of incoming and outgoing energy, and the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive, and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling.

Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. Predicting and maintaining or altering the distribution and abundance of various organisms are the primary goals of natural resource management hence, the effective management of natural ecosystems depends on ecological knowledge.