The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Environmental science is a multidisciplinary academic field that combines physical, biological and information sciences to the environmental study. The social science fields that are incorporated into environmental science include geography, economics, and political science. Philosophy and ethics are the two fields within the humanities that are also included in environmental science. The surface environment of the Earth is disciplined by interactions between the deep Earth, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the biosphere. This intercommunication occurs on timescales ranging from picoseconds for chemical reactions on mineral surfaces to the millions of years over which plate tectonic processes and earth’s evolution take place. Investigations are open on what shapes our world and the environment in which we live, in order to understand the interactions between Earth's geology, atmosphere, biosphere, oceans, and human responses and roles.
- Track 1-1 Meteorology
- Track 1-2Hydrology
- Track 1-3Geophysics
- Track 1-4Atmospheric physics
- Track 1-5Physical oceanography
- Track 1-6Advances in biological, physical and chemical processes
- Track 1-7On site and small-scale systems
- Track 1-8Storm-water management
- Track 1-9Emission sources
- Track 1-10Atmospheric modelling and numerical prediction
- Track 1-11Interaction between pollutants
- Track 1-12Aesthetic quality of drinking water (taste, odours)
Climate change occurs when changes in Earth’s climate system result in new weather patterns that remain in place for an extended period. This length of time can be as short as a few decades to if millions of years. The climate system comprises five interacting parts, the atmosphere (air), Hydrosphere (water), cryosphere (ice and permafrost), biosphere (living things), and lithosphere (earth's crust and upper mantle). The climate system receives nearly all its energy from the sun, with a relatively tiny amount from earth's interior. The climate system also gives off energy to outer space. The balance of incoming and outgoing energy, and the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive, and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling.
Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. Predicting and maintaining or altering the distribution and abundance of various organisms are the primary goals of natural resource management hence, the effective management of natural ecosystems depends on ecological knowledge.
- Track 2-1Climate Change & Climatology
- Track 2-2Adaptive management
- Track 2-3Integrated natural resource management
- Track 2-4Anthropocentrism
- Track 2-5Eco centrism
- Track 2-6Renewable resource
- Track 2-7volcanic eruptions
- Track 2-8Radioactive Gases
- Track 2-9Aerosols
- Track 2-10Humidity
- Track 2-11Greenhouse emissions
- Track 2-12Ozone layer depletion
Pollution is the presence of a pollutant in the environment and is often the result of human actions. Pollution has a detrimental effect on the environment. Animals, fish and other aquatic life, plants and humans all suffer when pollution is not controlled. In other words, Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that causes harmful and toxic effects to living things. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollution is often classified as point source pollution or non-point source pollution. Noise pollution, soil pollution and light pollution too are the damaging the environment at an alarming rate. Things as simple as light, sound and temperature can be considered pollutants when introduced artificially into an environment. Air pollution is by far the most harmful form of pollution in our environment. Air pollution is cause by the injurious smoke emitted by cars, buses, trucks, trains, and factories, namely sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Toxic pollution affects more than 200 million people worldwide. In some of the world’s worst polluted places, babies are born with birth defects, children have lost 30 to 40 IQ points, and life expectancy may be as low as 45 years because of cancers and other diseases.
- Track 3-1Hazardous substances and detection techniques
- Track 3-2Industrial Pollution
- Track 3-3Marine Pollution
- Track 3-4Carbon Cycle
- Track 3-5Wastewater pollution
- Track 3-6Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
- Track 3-7Environmental odour, monitoring and control
- Track 3-8Air pollution
- Track 3-9Emerging pollutants
- Track 3-10Heavy metals in the environment
- Track 3-11Efficient water resources management in Cr (VI) impacted water
Most climate scientists agree the main cause of the current global warming trend is human expansion of the "greenhouse effect"1 — warming those results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earth toward space. Human activities are changing the natural greenhouse. Over the last century the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil has increased the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Global warming is primarily a problem of too much carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere—which acts as a blanket, trapping heat and warming the planet.
- Track 4-1Global Warming and its Impacts
- Track 4-2Carbon Emission Sources and Control
- Track 4-3Carbon Discharge Reduction
- Track 4-4Ozone layer depletion
- Track 4-5Carbon capture and storage
- Track 4-6Biofuels
- Track 4-7Integrated ecosystems management
- Track 4-8Satellite applications in the environment
- Track 4-9Environmental restoration and ecological engineering
- Track 4-10Deforestation
Green energy comes from natural sources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, plants, algae and geothermal heat. These energy resources are renewable, meaning they're naturally replenished. In contrast, fossil fuels are a finite resource that take millions of years to develop and will continue to diminish with use.
Green process and Synthesis could be every other month, peer-audited diary that offers exceptional investigation each on fundamental and connected parts of creative green technique advancement and substance union, giving a proper offer to modern perspectives. The commitments are creative, high-affect, legitimate, and supply every expert and cons of potential advances. Green process and Synthesis give a stage to researchers and specialists, especially scientific experts and synthetic architects, anyway, is additionally open for information base investigation from elective zones like physical science, materials science, or concoction process. The Novel water-borne coatings by means of half breed scaled down emulsion polymerisation territory unit greatly getting utilized and for contamination bar inside the capacity gadget business the information of this subject is extraordinarily fundamental.
- Track 5-1Green Energy Production
- Track 5-2Green Environmental Toxicology
- Track 5-3Green Engineering
- Track 5-4Green Nanotechnology
- Track 5-5Green Energy Production
- Track 5-6Green Economy
- Track 5-7Green Architecture
- Track 5-8Green Analytical Methodologies
A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other landforms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants, adapted to the unique hydric soil. In this system, wetlands are classified by landscape position, vegetation cover and hydrologic regime. The Cowardian system includes five major wetland types: marine, tidal, lacustrine, palustrine and riverine. Wetlands may support both aquatic and terrestrial species. The prolonged presence of water creates conditions that favour the growth of specially adapted plants (hydrophytes) and promote the development of characteristic wetland (hydric) soil. Wetlands are a critical part of our natural environment. They protect our shores from wave action, reduce the impacts of floods, absorb pollutants and improve water quality. They provide habitat for animals and plants and many contain a wide diversity of life, supporting plants and animals that are found nowhere else. Wetlands exist in many kinds of climates, on every continent except Antarctica. They vary in size from isolated prairie potholes to huge salt marshes. They are found along coasts and inland. Some wetlands are flooded woodlands, full of trees. There are four main kinds of wetlands – marsh, swamp, bog and fen (bogs and fens being types of mires). Some experts also recognize wet meadows and aquatic ecosystems as additional wetland types. The largest wetlands in the world include the swamp forests of the Amazon and the peatlands of Siberia.
- Track 6-1Wetland Conservation
- Track 6-2Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment
- Track 6-3Landscape degradation and restoration
- Track 6-4Ground water remediation
- Track 6-5Soil decontamination
- Track 6-6Eco-technology
Renewable energy source is vitality that is produced from normal procedures that are persistently recharged. This incorporates sunlight, geothermal heat, wind, tides, water, and different types of biomass. This Energy can't be depleted and is continually recharged. Renewable energy technologies range solar power, wind power, hydroelectricity/micro hydro, biomass and biofuels for transportation. The utilization of Renewable fuels dates to Neolithic times, when cave tenants made fire from wood and different biomass for cooking and heating. For many years from that point, sustainable power source was all people utilized. The little measures of vitality available to people through customary scattered sustainable power sources implied that for centuries, human lives stayed unaltered.
- Track 7-1Solar, Water, Wind Energy
- Track 7-2Energy Conservation
- Track 7-3Energy Conversion
- Track 7-4Fuel Cell Technology
- Track 7-5Plasma Technology
- Track 7-6Renewable Energy Sources
- Track 7-7Solar electricity and PV applications
- Track 7-8Solar cell technology, Solar cell materials, testing and efficiency
- Track 7-9Nanotechnology applications to RE
- Track 7-10Solar thermal applications
- Track 7-11Hydroelectric, geothermal, tides and waves
- Track 7-12Biogas and biomass
- Track 7-13Hybrid energy systems
- Track 7-14Integrated energy systems
- Track 7-15Rural electrification
Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration is the process of assisting in the recovery of ecosystems that have been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and focuses on establishing the ecological processes necessary to make terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems sustainable, resilient, and healthy under current and future conditions. Restoration projects differ in their objectives and their methods of achieving those goals. Many restoration projects aim to establish ecosystems composed of a native species; other projects attempt to restore, improve, or create ecosystem functions, such as pollination or erosion control.
- Track 8-1Nutrients and Functions of Ecosystems
- Track 8-2Restoration of Ecosystems
- Track 8-3Urban Ecology
- Track 8-4Eco-technology
Recycling is the practice of recovering used materials from the waste stream and then incorporating those same materials into the manufacturing process. Successful recycling also depends on manufacturers making products from recovered materials and, in turn, consumers purchasing products made of recyclable materials. Does your part "close the loop" and buy products made of recycled materials whenever possible. Recycling is the process of collecting and processing materials that would otherwise be thrown away as trash and turning them into new products.
- Track 9-1Organic Waste Recycling
- Track 9-2Chemical Waste Recycling
- Track 9-3Waste Treatment Technologies
- Track 9-4Waste Processing Industries
- Track 9-5Bioenergy from Waste
- Track 9-6Petrochemical and Oil Recycling
- Track 9-7Bioremediation
- Track 9-8Plastic Waste Recycling
- Track 9-9Paper Recycling
- Track 9-10Industrial Waste Recycling
Waste management (or waste disposal) are the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process Waste can be solid, liquid, or gas and each type have different methods of disposal and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste, including industrial, biological and household. In some cases, waste can pose a threat to human health. Waste is produced by human activity, for example, the extraction and processing of raw materials. Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health. A large portion of waste management practices deal with municipal solid waste (MSW) which is the bulk of the waste that is created by household, industrial, and commercial activity.
- Track 10-1Solid waste management
- Track 10-2Food waste
- Track 10-3Hazardous waste management
- Track 10-4Biowaste
- Track 10-5Microplastics in the marine environment
- Track 10-6Electric and electronic waste
- Track 10-7anaerobic digestion
- Track 10-8gasification
- Track 10-9gasification
- Track 10-10pyrolysis
- Track 10-11plasma arc waste disposal
Biomass & Bioenergy is an international journal publishing original research papers and short communications, review articles and case studies on biological resources, chemical and biological processes, and biomass products for new renewable sources of energy and materials. Biofuels, on the other hand, are energy sources derived from biological materials through contemporary biological processes. Biofuel refers to any fuel derived from biomass, that is, animal wastes or plant or algae. It also refers to liquid fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel that is a fuel made from oils of plants. Biomass contains stored energy from the sun. Plants absorb the sun's energy in a process called photosynthesis. When biomass is burned, the chemical energy in biomass is released as heat. Biomass can be burned directly or converted to liquid biofuels or biogas that can be burned as fuels. We use four types of biomass today wood and agricultural products, solid waste, landfill gas and biogas, and alcohol fuels (like Ethanol or Biodiesel). Examples of biofuels include ethanol (often made from corn in the United States and sugarcane in Brazil), biodiesel (vegetable oils and liquid animal fats), green diesel (derived from algae and other plant sources) and biogas (methane derived from animal manure and other digested organic materials).
- Track 11-1Alternative fuels (nuclear; hydrogen; electro-fuels; power to gas)
- Track 11-2Renewable heat and electricity generation systems
- Track 11-3Thermal power plants
- Track 11-4Advanced energy conversion systems
- Track 11-5Energy storage
- Track 11-6Energy efficiency
- Track 11-7Cogeneration, trigeneration, polygene ration â€¢ Biofuels and biorefineries
- Track 11-8Environmental protection in energy management systems
- Track 11-9Sustainability in the aspect of the environmental protection
RFID (radio frequency identification) is a form of wireless communication that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal or person. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology designed to allow objects, animals and even human beings to be identified, located, and tracked using radio frequency signals. For example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line; RFID-tagged pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses; and implanting RFID microchips in livestock and pets enables positive identification of animals. These radio waves transmit data from the tag to a reader, which then transmits the information to an RFID computer program. RFID tags are frequently used for merchandise, but they can also be used to track vehicles, pets, and even patients with Alzheimer's disease. An RFID tag may also be called an RFID chip.
Environmental Control Technology is a technical program offering the theoretical, technical, and problem- solving skills essential for employment in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration industry. Prominent examples include solar and wind energy, water desalination (the removal of salt or other minerals from saline water), electric vehicles, and pyrolysis
Here are six ways technology is helping the environment today.
- Track 13-1Renewable Energy
- Track 13-2Going Digital
- Track 13-3Environmental Monitoring
- Track 13-4The Sharing Economy
- Track 13-5Electric Cars
- Track 13-6Smarter Homes
Food contaminants are substances included unintentionally in Foods Some are harmless and others are hazardous because of the toxicological risks from their intake to the consumers.
• Raw material à environmental pollutants
• processing à filtering
• packaging & storage
1: Heavy metals
4: Pesticide Residues
5: Packaging materials
Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices. Used electronics which are destined for refurbishment, reuse, resale, salvage recycling through material recovery, or disposal are also considered e-waste.
Environmental effects of e-waste: The toxic materials from electronic devices are released into bodies of water, groundwater, soil and air, affecting both land and sea animals. When you throw out your e-waste they wind up in landfills, causing toxic materials to seep into groundwater.
- Sell old Electronics
- Donate old Electronics
- Recycle and Dispose of E-Waste Properly
- Maintain your Electronics
- Repurpose or Re-evaluate
- Store Data Online
Hydroelectricity is electricity made by generators that are pushed by movement of water. It is usually made with dams that block a river to make a reservoir or collect water that is pumped there. When the water is released, the pressure behind the dam forces the water down pipes that lead to a turbine. Hydropower plants capture the energy of falling water to generate electricity. A turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical energy. Then a generator converts the mechanical energy from the turbine into electrical energy. Hydropower is the most important and widely used renewable source of energy. Hydropower represents about 17% (International Energy Agency) of total electricity production. China is the largest producer of hydroelectricity, followed by Canada, Brazil, and the United States (Source: Energy Information Administration).
- Track 16-1Hydro Power
- Track 16-2Lake and Reservoir Management
- Track 16-3Alternate Energy Sources
A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operation and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficient resources. A smart grid can help utilities conserve energy, reduce costs, increase reliability and transparency, and make processes more efficient. The increasing use of IT-based electric power systems, however, increases cyber security vulnerabilities, which increases cyber security's importance. A smart grid technology is an essential to provide easy integration and reliable service to the consumers. A smart grid system is a self-sufficient electricity network system based on digital automation technology for monitoring, control, and analysis within the supply chain.
- Track 17-1Integration of Renewable Resources
- Track 17-2Plug-In Electric Vehicle Integration
- Track 17-3System Operations Efficiencies
- Track 17-4Efficiency and Carbon Reduction Verification
- Track 17-5Financial Business Case
Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. For example, A larger number of plant species means a greater variety of crops. Greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability for all life forms.
- Track 18-1Genetic Diversity
- Track 18-2Species Diversity
- Track 18-3Ecological Diversity
Geothermal energy is the heat that comes from the sub-surface of the earth. It is contained in the rocks and fluids beneath the earth's crust and can be found as far down to the earth's hot molten rock, magma. Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. It's clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma.
- Track 19-1Exploration
- Track 19-2Drilling
- Track 19-3Direct use
- Track 19-4Geothermal Heat Pumps
- Track 19-5Electricity Production
- Track 19-6Advanced Technologies
Oceanography also called oceanology or marine science is the branch of physical geography that studies the Earth's oceans and seas. Oceanographers study a wide range of topics such as plate tectonics to ocean currents to marine organisms. Branches are of four sorts: Biological oceanography, Chemical oceanography, Geological oceanography, Physical oceanography.
A coastal zone is a place where the land and water interfaces with each other. The Coastal Zones play an important role in the human survival because many people will occupy the coastal areas. Due to the interactions between the land and the water there are lot many changes occurred in the coastal zones. 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water so we can say that the marine ecosystem is the largest Ecosystem, where more than 90% of the Marine Ecosystem is covered by the marine environment.
- Track 20-1Ocean and Coastal policy
- Track 20-2Marine Biodiversity
- Track 20-3Coral Reefs and Coastal Protection
- Track 20-4Coastal Resources
- Track 20-5Coastal Recreation
Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting wild species and their habitats in order to prevent species from going extinct. The main concern is to preserve the habitats so that the future generations of wildlife and even humans can enjoy it. One of the most vital roles of wildlife conservation to humans is food security. Through the protection of forests against deforestation as well as restoring natural habitats, economic opportunities would rise. Moreover, wildlife conservation helps in promoting agricultural diversity. Major threats to wildlife include:
- habitat destruction
- pollution and
- climate change.
Causes of Extinction of Wildlife and Its Conservation
Loss of habitat.
Loss of mobility.
Limitation of expansion of vegetation.
International trade. The trade of some items of wild origin such as animals’ fur, bones, tusks, musk or as orchids, medicinal plants resulted in the decline of wild animals and plants.