Earth Science and Climate Change

Earth and environmental sciences cover all aspects of Earth and planetary sciences, and broadly encompasses solid Earth processes, surface and atmospheric dynamics, Earth system history, climate change, marine and freshwater systems, and ecology. It also considers the interactions between humans and these systems. Current research includes: Understanding astronomical forcing of climate change records as recorded in oceanic sediments, Change in the magnitude and mechanisms of global temperature variability with warming , Biogeochemical cycling of stable isotopes and elements in marine and terrestrial systems, applying geochemical methods for conducting societally relevant research and many more. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as evidenced by increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, the widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. The scientific opinion is expressed in synthesis reports, by scientific bodies of national or international standing, and by surveys of opinion among climate scientists.